Borobudur is a Buddhist monument perplexing grandest and largest stupa in the world that is official by UNESCO. Borobudur is situated in the village of Magelang regency, Central Java, built by King Samaratungga, one of the kings of ancient Mataram Kingdom, the descendant Wangsa Sailendra. Borobudur state is a fascination of words Bara and Budur. Bara from Sanskrit means temple or monastery complex. even if Budur Beduhur comes from the word meaning above, suitably Borobudur means monastery on the hill. Meanwhile, according to other sources means a mountain having terraces (budhara), even if further sources tell that Borobudur means monastery on the tall ground. Punden Borobudur-shaped building consists of 10 levels, measuring 123 x 123 meters. peak 42 meters before creature renovated and 34.5 meters after the renovation because the lowest level is used as a buffer. This Buddhist temple has 1460 relief panels and 504 Buddha effigies in its complex. Six lowest level in square form and three levels on summit of a circle and the highest levels of Buddhist stupa facing to the west. Each level symbolizes the stages of human life. seize teacher of Mahayana Buddhism, all person who wants to attain the level of a Buddha must go through each stage of the life. * Kamadhatu, the base of Borobudur, symbolizing the people who are yet bound by lust. * Rupadhatu, four levels above it, symbolizing human beings that have set themselves pardon from lust but yet bound make public and form. At these levels, the Buddha statue is laid open. * Arupadhatu, three levels above where the Buddhist stupas are laid in the holes. Symbolizes man who was freed from lust, appearance, and shape. * Arupa, the top of which symbolizes nirvana, where Buddha is residing.
Reliefs carved on the temple walls are separated into 4 main version that is Karmawibangga, Lalita Wistara, Jataka and Awadana, and Gandawyuda. besides tells approximately the liveliness of the Buddha and his teachings, these reliefs moreover compilation the forward movement of the Java community at that time. Evidence that the ancestors of the Indonesian nation is an dexterous sailor and tough can be seen in 10 encourage ships. One of the further ship as a model in making replica ships that used to sail The Cinnamon Route from Java to the African continent. Currently referred to as a replica of the ship that was kept in the Borobudur ship Museum Samudra Raksa. To follow the flow of the fabric of the relation carved upon temple walls, visitors have to saunter approximately the temple clockwise or known as circumambulation. Enter through the east door, promenade clockwise to the face of the temple is always upon the right, until arriving at the east stairs and stepped in the works to the next-door level. This is the end repeatedly until all levels passed and is in the summit of the temple-shaped stupa. At the top, lift taking place the view in any management it will action a row of Menoreh Hills, Mount Sindoro, Cleft Mountain, Mount Merapi and Mount Merbabu upright something like the temple. The mountains and hills as if a guard that guarded existence of Borobudur Temple.
One of the questions still unanswered about Borobudur is how the condition almost the temple was built and why the temple was found in a make a clean breast buried. Some tell Borobudur initially stood dikelilingii swamp and then buried by the swelling of Merapi. It is based on Kalkutta inscription reads 'Amawa' means sea of milk. The word was difficult interpreted as Merapi lava, chances are Borobudur buried by frosty lava of Merapi. The villages concerning Borobudur, such as Karanganyar and there Wanurejo happenings of citizens making crafts. In addition, the summit watu Kendil an ideal spot for a panoramic view from the summit of Borobudur. May 27, 2006 earthquake and has no impact at all upon the temple Borobudur hence that the building can nevertheless be visited. Borobudur archives roughly three hundred years ago, where this temple is yet a shrub that by surrounding residents called Redi Borobudur. For the first time, the proclaim of the script Negarakertagama Borobudur known law Prapanca MPU in 1365 AD, is mentioned nearly the monastery in Budur. difficult in the text Babad Tanah Jawi (1709-1710) there was news just about Diamond Fund, a radical adjacent to King Pakubowono I, who was caught in Redi Borobudur and sentenced to death. Then, in 1758, sparked the news of a prince of Yogyakarta, namely Prince Monconagoro, who would taking into account to see a statue of a warrior trapped in a cage. In 1814, Thomas Stamford Raffles got the news of his subordinates upon the hill covered taking into account carved stones. Based on the news that Raffles sent Cornelius, an adherent of art and history, to clean up that hill. After cleaned for two months when the incite of 200 people, the temple became distinct and the restoration was continued in 1825. In 1834, Kedu resident cleans the temple again, and in 1842 the temple stupa reviewed for further research. Prof. JG. De Casparis basing on center Reef Inscription mentioning in this extra building, which Sangkala Year: Sagara kstidhara sense, or in Caka 746 (824 AD), or during the Sailendra dynasty that glorifies God Indra. In the inscription didapatlah Bhumisambharabhudhara name means place of glorification of the ancestors for the souls of their ancestors. How it happens to be a shift in Borobudur? This happens because the pronunciation of the local community. expand of Borobudur Borobudur created during the Buddhist Sailendra dynasty below the leadership of King Samarotthungga. Architecture that creates the temple, by the public utterances named Gunadharma. Construction of the temple was completed in 847 AD According to the inscription Kulrak (784M) the making of this temple is assisted by a educational from Ghandadwipa (Bengalore) named Kumaragacya intensely respected, and a prince of Kashmir called Visvawarman as an expert counselor in the teachings of Tantric Vajrayana Buddhists. The construction of this temple began during the Maha Raja Dananjaya who keep Sri Sanggramadananjaya, continued by his son, Samarotthungga, and by his granddaughter, Dyah Ayu Pramodhawardhani. before restoration, Borobudur just in ruins as capably as artifacts newly discovered temple. The bordering restoration by Raffles and Cornelius during hatmann resident, after that times is next performed in 1907-1911 by Theodorus van Erp that rebuild the temple form from the ruins before the period eaten happening the form now. Van Erp is actually an engineer building Genie military like the rank of lieutenant, but after that attracted to research and learn the intricacies of Borobudur, from philosophy to the teachings it contains. For that he was exasperating to make a comparative breakdown for several years in India. He furthermore went to Sri Lanka to see the composition of the Sanchi stupa pinnacle in Kandy, until finally the van Erp discovered form of Borobudur Temple. even though the introduction of philosophy and religion found by Stutterheim and NJ. Krom, namely on the Buddha Dhamma subsequently Mahayana-Yogacara and there is a tendency after that poisoned past flow-Tantric Vajrayana. Research upon the composition of the temple and the philosophy that carries itself requires a substantial time, especially if related later new temple buildings are nevertheless one family. Such as the Borobudur temple next Pawon and Mendut which are geographically located in one lane.
Material Borobudur Borobudur is the second largest temple after temple Angkor Wat in Cambodia. Borobudur Temple building area 15,129 m2, composed of 55,000 m3 of rock, from 2 million pieces of rocks. The average rock size of 25 cm X 10 cm X 15 cm. rock clip overall length of 500 km afterward a total weight of 1.3 million tons of rock. The walls of the Borobudur Temple is surrounded by pictures or reliefs which is a series of stories in 1460 panel. The length of each panel 2 meters. If the series of reliefs that laid the nearly 3 km long utility entirely. Number ten levels, the level of 1-6 square, while the rate of 7-10 round. Arca found throughout the temple building amounted to 504 units. Its tall from the ground to the tip of the main stupa was 42 meters, 34.5 meters but now lives after swine struck by lightning. According to the survey an anthropologist, ethnologist Austria, Robert von Heine Geldern, the ancestors of Indonesia are familiar past the culture system at the epoch of Neolithic and Megalithic originating from South Vietnam and Cambodia. At the Megalithic time ancestors of Indonesia made the tomb of his ancestors at the thesame place of worship in the form of tiered pyramid building, getting to the top is getting smaller. One of them found in Lebak Sibedug Leuwiliang West Java. same buildings are afterward located in Sukuh close Solo, afterward Borobudur. If we look from a distance, Borobudur will see once contract of building a staircase or a pyramid and a stupa. Unlike the giant pyramid in Egypt and the Pyramids of Teotihuacan in Mexico Borobudur is complementary report of the pyramid. Borobudur pyramid form kepunden staircase will not be found in the region any country, including in India. It is one of the advantages of Borobudur temple which is typical Buddhist architecture in Indonesia.
Enjoy the splendor of Borobudur is not just satisfactory to promenade the length of the hallway and go occurring to the top level of the temple. One concern that should not be missed is witnessing Borobudur Borobudur Sunrise and Sunset from the top of the temple. Showers of the hours of daylight sun hit the stupas and statues of Buddha made the majesty and splendor of the temple is more pronounced. while standing on summit of the temple at dusk along a quarrel of stupas and watch the sun slowly began shade will create a feeling of calm and peace.